What does carbonic anhydrase 2 do?
Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of sixteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Defects in this enzyme are associated with osteopetrosis and renal tubular acidosis.
What types of secondary structure are found in carbonic anhydrase II?
The six α-helices (red) and 10 β-sheets (blue) make up the secondary structure of this monomeric enzyme.
What is HCA II?
Human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is a monomeric zinc-containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydration of CO2 to form bicarbonate and a proton. The properties of the zinc have been extensively elucidated in catalysis, but less well studied as a contributor to structure and stability.
What is the function of carbonic anhydrase enzyme?
Abstract. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) catalyze a reaction fundamental for life: the bidirectional conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) into bicarbonate (HCO3-) and protons (H+). These enzymes impact numerous physiological processes that occur within and across the many compartments in the body.
What is carbonic anhydrase?
Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme that assists rapid inter-conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid, protons and bicarbonate ions. This enzyme was first identified in 1933, in red blood cells of cows. Since then, it has been found to be abundant in all mammalian tissues, plants, algae and bacteria.
How does carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work?
Mechanism of Action Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. That means this drug works to cause an accumulation of carbonic acid by preventing its breakdown. The result is lower blood pH (i.e., more acidic), given the increased carbonic acid, which has a reversible reaction into bicarbonate and a hydrogen ion.
How do CAIs work in glaucoma?
CAIs work by suppressing aqueous humor production. Blockade of carbonic anhydrase by CAIs in local tissues reduces the formation of bicarbonate ions, thus reducing fluid transport and IOP.
Why carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used in glaucoma?
In the eyes, CAIs are classically used in the management of glaucoma due to their ability to reduce the secretion of aqueous humor, thereby lowering the intraocular pressure. Furthermore, CAIs are used for chronic open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma before surgery.
How do CAIs produce diuresis?
Mechanism of Action Inhibition of CA in the cytoplasm of proximal tubule cells causes a decrease in secretion of H+ through the Na+/H+ antiporter. In this way, the driving force to reabsorb Na+ in the proximal tubule is dissipated, necessitating natriuresis and diuresis.
How acetazolamide works in the eye?
Acetazolamide works by blocking the action of an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase. Blocking this enzyme reduces the amount of fluid (called aqueous humour) that you make in the front part of your eye, and this helps to lower the pressure within your eye.
Why do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors cause diuresis?
Lowered reabsorption of bicarbonates results in decreased activity of the apical sodium hydrogen exchanger, causing diuresis due to retention of sodium in the renal tubules.
Why is acetazolamide used for glaucoma?
How much does acetazolamide lower eye pressure?
The 45% reduction in outflow pressure is achieved with an acetazolamide serum concentration in the range of 15 to 20 μg/mL. 1. Becker B: Decrease in intraocular pressure in man by a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, Diamox .
What is carbonic anhydrase II?
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) II is found in renal tubules, brain, and osteoclasts, and is critical in acid-base homeostasis and bone remodeling ( McMahon et al., 2001; Lehenkari et al., 1998 ).
What are the spectral features of carbonic anhydrases?
For the spectral features of calcium, see Calcium § H and K lines. Carbonic anhydrase II (gene name CA2), is one of sixteen forms of human α carbonic anhydrases. Carbonic anhydrase catalyzes reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Defects in this enzyme are associated with osteopetrosis and renal tubular acidosis.
What is the speed of carbonic anhydrase?
Carbonic anhydrase is one of the fastest enzymes, and its rate is typically limited by the diffusion rate of its substrates.
How is carbonic anhydrase II deficiency diagnosed and detected?
Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency: diagnosis and carrier detection using differential enzyme inhibition and inactivation. V Sundaram, P Rumbolo, J Grubb, P Strisciuglio, and W S Sly Copyright and License informationDisclaimer Copyright notice This article has been cited byother articles in PMC. Abstract