Why is it called hippocampus?

Why is it called hippocampus?

The name hippocampus is derived from the Greek hippokampus (hippos, meaning “horse,” and kampos, meaning “sea monster”), since the structure’s shape resembles that of a sea horse.

What is the hippocampus function?

Hippocampus is a complex brain structure embedded deep into temporal lobe. It has a major role in learning and memory. It is a plastic and vulnerable structure that gets damaged by a variety of stimuli. Studies have shown that it also gets affected in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

What is suprachiasmatic nucleus in psychology?

a small region of the hypothalamus in the brain, above the optic chiasm, that is the location of the circadian oscillator, which controls circadian rhythms. It receives direct input from the retina. See also biological clock.

What controls the suprachiasmatic nucleus?

The SCN maintains control across the body by synchronizing “slave oscillators,” which exhibit their own near-24-hour rhythms and control circadian phenomena in local tissue. The SCN receives input from specialized photosensitive ganglion cells in the retina via the retinohypothalamic tract.

Who discovered suprachiasmatic nucleus?

The discovery that the SCN represent a major cir- cadian pacemaker in rodents occurred simultaneously in two laboratories, one headed by Robert Y. Moore (then at the University of Chicago) and the other headed by Irving Zucker at the University of Califor- nia, Berkeley.

Who created hippocampus?

In 1587, Julius Caesar Arantius (a.k.a. Giulio Cesare Aranzi, 1530-1589), a surgeon and anatomist whose pioneering work in the field included discovering different anatomical structures of the human body, discovered the part of the brain in question and compared its appearance to—you guessed it—a hippocampus, or …

Who discovered the hippocampus?

Julius Caesar Arantius
Julius Caesar Arantius is one of the pioneer anatomists and surgeons of the 16th century who discovered the different anatomical structures of the human body. One of his prominent discoveries is the hippocampus.

How does hippocampus affect memory?

The hippocampus helps humans process and retrieve two types of memory, declarative memories and spatial relationships. Declarative memories are those related to facts and events. Examples can include learning how to memorize speeches or lines in a play. Spatial relationship memories involve pathways or routes.

Does the hippocampus store memory?

Hippocampus. The hippocampus, located in the brain’s temporal lobe, is where episodic memories are formed and indexed for later access. Episodic memories are autobiographical memories from specific events in our lives, like the coffee we had with a friend last week.

How many cells are in the suprachiasmatic nucleus?

The neuronal and hormonal activities it generates regulate many different body functions in a 24-hour cycle. The mouse SCN contains approximately 20,000 neurons. Suprachiasmatic nucleus is SC, at center left, labelled in blue. The optic chiasm is OC, just below, labelled in black.

Where does hippocampus live?

temporal lobe
The hippocampus is a seahorse shaped organ that sits on the underside of each temporal lobe — the part of the brain near our ears. The hippocampus is a small but important part of the brain that’s responsible for storing memories, learning and navigation.

Is hippocampus a fish?

A seahorse (also written sea-horse and sea horse) is any of 46 species of small marine fish in the genus Hippocampus….Seahorse.

Seahorses Temporal range: Lower Miocene to present –
Short-snouted seahorse (Hippocampus hippocampus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata

Who named hippocampus?

One of his prominent discoveries is the hippocampus. At that time, Arantius originated the term hippocampus, from the Greek word for seahorse (hippos [“horse”] and kampos [“sea monster”]). Arantius published his description of the hippocampus in 1587, in the first chapter of his work titled De Humano Foetu Liber.

How many neurons are in the hippocampus?

Systematic mining of published data on axonal and dendritic profiles, augmented with information on neurotransmitter and synaptic specificity, led to the tentative definition of over 100 distinct neuron types across the hippocampal formation.

What is the supramammillary nucleus?

The supramammillary nucleus (SuM), or supramammillary area, is a thin layer of cells in the brain that lies above the mammillary bodies. It can be considered part of the hypothalamus and diencephalon.

Where is the suprachiasmatic nucleus located in the brain?

The optic chiasm is OC, just below, labelled in black. Suprachiasmatic nucleus is labelled and shown in green. The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei ( SCN) is a tiny region of the brain in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.

Where are the mammillary nuclei located in the brain?

They are located at the ends of the anterior arches of the fornix. They consist of two groups of nuclei, the medial mammillary nuclei and the lateral mammillary nuclei. Neuroanatomists have often categorized the mammillary bodies as part of the hypothalamus.

What are the medial and lateral sections of the nucleus?

The nucleus can be divided into medial and lateral sections. The medial SuM, or SuM M, is made of smaller cells which release dopamine and give input to the lateral septal nucleus.