What is the radar range formula?

Standard Form of Radar Range Equation We will get the following equation, by substituting R=RMax and Pr=Smin in Equation 6. Equation 7 represents the standard form of Radar range equation. By using the above equation, we can find the maximum range of the target.

What is the radar range formula?

Standard Form of Radar Range Equation We will get the following equation, by substituting R=RMax and Pr=Smin in Equation 6. Equation 7 represents the standard form of Radar range equation. By using the above equation, we can find the maximum range of the target.

How do you calculate pulse compression ratio?

The pulse compression ratio, which is the duration of the long pulse divided by the duration of the short (compressed) pulse, is equal to BT. Frequency and phase modulations have both been used for pulse compression.

How is the target range determined in a radar system?

The velocity of wave propagation is critical to the operation of any radar system, since measurements of elapsed time between transmitter pulses and received “echo” signals provide the only method for determining the distance between the radar and the target(s).

What do you mean by radar range?

The radar range equation represents the physical dependences of the transmit power, which is the wave propagation up to the receiving of the echo signals.

What is radar frequency range?

Most radars, in practice, operate between 400 MHz to 36 GHz; however, there are some notable exceptions. The optical and radio portions of the electromagnetic spectrum occupy positions coincidental with two important transparent bands in the Earth’s atmosphere and ionosphere.

How do you find range and resolution?

Range resolution as a distance can be calculated as follows: Rres = c * τ /2 Where, τ is the transmitted pulse width and c is the velocity of light in the free space. Narrower beamwidth is very useful to distinguish two adjacent targets.

What is pulse compression gain?

Pulse compression is a signal processing technique commonly used by radar, sonar and echography to increase the range resolution as well as the signal to noise ratio. This is achieved by modulating the transmitted pulse and then correlating the received signal with the transmitted pulse.

What are range sidelobes?

Also refereed to as range sidelobes, a radar system that is using pulse compression techniques, which are used in modern radars and increasingly in Marine radars using solid state power amplifiers (SSPA).

What is radar range rate?

This velocity is called range-rate. It describes the rate that a target moves toward or away from the radar. A target with no range-rate reflects a frequency near the transmitter frequency and cannot be detected. The classic zero doppler target is one which is on a heading that is tangential to the radar antenna beam.

What is maximum range in radar?

Maximum Range: Radar Max Range is determined, ideally speaking, on the properties of the antenna only. A signal at a certain frequency is transmitted, reflected, then hopefully, detected. Due to the three-dimensional propagation of radar waves, frequency hold the highest weight in determining range.

How do I choose a radar frequency?

The choice of frequency depends on the application requirements. The minimum antenna size is proportional to wavelength and inversely proportional to frequency. Airborne applications often are limited in the size of antenna that can be used. A smaller antenna dictates a higher frequency and lower wavelength choice.

What is a range cell in radar?

Range Cell: In a radar, a range cell is the smallest range increment the radar is capable of detecting. If a radar has a range resolution of 50 yards and a total range of 30 nautical miles (60,000 yds), there are: 60000/50 = 1,200 range cells.

What is range bin in radar?

In weather radar, it is common to have a series of continual range gates that separate out returns at different distances and then process them to extract Doppler shift to measure wind speed. In these cases, it is common to refer to each gate as a range bin.

How are Sidelobes formed?

Diffraction occurs whenever there is a sharp discontinuity in a radiating or reflecting surface. On the antenna arrays so far described we have a number of elements all radiating and suddenly the antenna ends, which creates diffraction or sidelobe type effects.

What are the factors affecting radar range equation?

What factors affect Maximum Range of RADAR?

  • FREQUENCY. The higher the frequency of a radar (radio) wave, the greater is the attenuation (loss in power), regardless of weather.
  • PEAK POWER. The peak power of a radar is its useful power.
  • PULSE LENGTH.
  • PULSE REPETITION RATE.

What is maximum range and pulse recurrence frequency?

The maximum unambiguous range (Rmax) is the longest range to which a transmitted pulse can travel out to and back again between consecutive transmitted pulses. In other words, Rmax is the maximum distance radar energy can travel round trip between pulses and still produce reliable information.

What is the radar range equation?

The radar range equation represents the physical dependences of the transmit power, which is the wave propagation up to the receiving of the echo signals.

What is the advantage of pulse compression in radar?

Pulse Compression Gain With the help of pulse compression, a relatively long transmission pulse with comparatively low peak power can achieve a better, longer range than the basic radar equation would suggest. This is because pulse compression can still detect echo signals that have already disappeared in the noise before pulse compression.

What is the range resolution of a pulse-modulated radar?

The range resolution of a simple pulse-modulated radar depends on the pulse duration. Two reflective objects located within the spatial extent of the pulse are only displayed as one target. To improve the range resolution for a relatively long transmission pulse duration, the transmission pulse is modulated internally.

What is the signal type of a pulse radar?

Signal description. The simplest signal a pulse radar can transmit is a sinusoidal-amplitude pulse, and carrier frequency, , truncated by a rectangular function of width, . The pulse is transmitted periodically, but that is not the main topic of this article; we will consider only a single pulse, .