What is medial vascular calcification?
Medial artery calcification (MAC) is a condition characterized by the presence of diffuse calcium deposits along the medial layer of the arterial wall resulting in a typical “railroad-track” appearance on plain x-ray imaging.
What causes medial arterial calcification?
In contrast, medial calcification occurs independently of atherosclerosis and is strongly associated with aging, CKD, and diabetes mellitus. Deposition of hydroxyapatite crystals occurs in the absence of inflammatory cells along concentric elastin fibers, directly abutting VSMCs.
What is Monckeberg’s sclerosis?
Monckeberg’s sclerosis is a disease of unknown aetiology characterised by calcification of the media of small-sized and medium-sized arteries1 first described by Johann Georg Monckeberg in 19032 for whom it is eponymously named. The result is progressive stiffening of the elastic layer of the arterial wall.
What is Monckeberg medial calcific sclerosis?
Monckeberg medial calcific sclerosis (MCS) is a ring-like calcification of the vascular media of small to medium sized vessels without associated intimal thickening. Almost exclusively, MCS is the underlying condition in what is referred to as breast arterial calcification (BAC) detected at mammography.
How do you treat vascular calcifications?
Potential Treatments of Vascular Calcification The available therapies are often existing treatments for related conditions and can be categorized as osteoporosis therapies, CKD therapies, and cardiovascular disease therapies. There are also experimental therapies at various research stages.
What causes Monckeberg calcification?
This pattern is usually caused by calcium phosphate, and is typically associated with malignancy, compared with low density amorphous calcifications, which are caused by calcium oxalate, and are associated with benign conditions.
What are the signs and symptoms of Monckeberg’s Arteriosclerosis?
Monckeberg’s sclerosis is a rare and low prevalence disease of unknown cause in which small and medium size arteries suffer calcification of the middle layer, leading to a reduction in caliber. Clinically, the disease manifests by the appearance of arterial type ulcers on the skin of upper and lower extremities.
How is metastatic calcification treated?
Treatment of metastatic calcification involves eliminating the underlying causes of either hypophosphatemia or hypercalcemia, and may include renal transplantation or parathyroidectomy.
What is Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis?
Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis, or Mönckeberg’s sclerosis, is a form of arteriosclerosis or vessel hardening, where calcium deposits are found in the muscular middle layer of the walls of arteries (the tunica media ). It is an example of dystrophic calcification. This condition occurs as an age-related degenerative process.
How is Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis characterized on mammography?
Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis is characterized by calcific deposits within the media of medium and small muscular arteries that do not cause luminal narrowing. The calcification is typically diffuse and circumferential along the vessel and is readily visible on plain film. Vascular calcification in the breast on mammography is of this type.
What is the prevalence of Mönckeberg’s disease?
The prevalence of Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis increases with age and is more frequent in diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic inflammatory conditions, hypervitaminosis D and rare genetic disorders, such as Keutel syndrome.
What does translumbar aortography show in patients with Mönckeberg’s sclerosis?
Translumbar aortography shows near-total obstruction of the femoral arteries. Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosis, or Mönckeberg’s sclerosis, is a form of arteriosclerosis or vessel hardening, where calcium deposits are found in the muscular middle layer of the walls of arteries (the tunica media ).